GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF NORTH CAROLINA
SESSION LAW 2011-186
HOUSE BILL 45
AN ACT to allow the use of risk-based remediation to ACCELERATE the cleanup of contaminated Industrial sites for the purpose of limiting human and environmental exposure to safe levels, to protect current and likely future uses of groundwater, and to ensure the cost-effective application of limited public and private resources.
Whereas, the General Assembly finds that public health, safety, and welfare and the environment can be protected by implementing a remediation process that requires that contaminated industrial sites be cleaned up to a level that is sufficient to ensure protection of public health, safety, and welfare and the environment without excessive expenditure of public or private resources; and
Whereas, the General Assembly finds that there are contaminated industrial sites in North Carolina, including land and other property, surface water, and groundwater, that are adversely affected by environmental contamination due to the presence of drilling waste; hazardous and toxic materials, substances, and wastes; solid waste; oil; and other wastes, contaminants, and regulated substances; and
Whereas, the General Assembly finds that the presence of environmental contamination on industrial sites creates both potential and actual harm to public health, safety, and welfare and to the environment; and
Whereas, the General Assembly finds that this potential and actual harm results in substantial economic losses, including reduced property values and tax revenues, decreased ability to develop and expand the beneficial use of these sites, and other opportunity costs because of the uncertainties and concerns that result from the environmental contamination of these sites; and
Whereas, the General Assembly finds that it is in the public interest that contaminated industrial sites are cleaned up or managed in a manner that protects public health, safety, and welfare and the environment and protects groundwater that is a current or probable future water supply; and
Whereas, the General Assembly finds that North Carolina has numerous and varied State-managed remediation programs to address environmental contamination, including the Inactive Hazardous Sites Response Act of 1987; the hazardous waste management program administered by the State pursuant to the federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976; the Leaking Petroleum Underground Storage Tank Cleanup Act of 1988; the Brownfields Property Reuse Act of 1997; the Dry-Cleaning Solvent Cleanup Act of 1997; the federal Superfund program administered in part by the State pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986; and the groundwater protection rules adopted by the Environmental Management Commission; and
Whereas, the General Assembly finds that the expenditure of public and private resources on unnecessary remediation could better be channeled to other purposes, including new development, renovation and repair, research and development, training and education, and other activities that maintain and enhance North Carolina's competitive position in the world and the excellent quality of life enjoyed by the citizens of North Carolina; and
Whereas, the General Assembly finds that North Carolina's groundwater is a valuable public and private resource, serving as the drinking water source for one-half of the State's population and also as a water supply for industrial and commercial uses; and
Whereas, the General Assembly finds that maintenance of North Carolina's surface water and groundwater resources will become increasingly important to the continued economic vitality of the State in the future; and
Whereas, the General Assembly finds that use of site-specific remediation standards based on an objective, scientific, and uniform approach to the evaluation of the risk posed by each contaminated site can be protective of public health, safety, and welfare and the environment; and
Whereas, the General Assembly finds that use of site-specific remediation standards in appropriate circumstances may encourage accelerated cleanup of contaminated industrial sites; and
Whereas, the General Assembly intends that the levels of remediation that are established for each contaminated site are to be applicable or relevant under federal remediation programs; and
Whereas, the General Assembly intends that the protections afforded to public health, safety, and welfare and to the environment by existing environmental, health, and safety standards that apply to ongoing activities not be diminished in any way, in order that those standards will continue to protect against the discharge or release of contaminants to the environment that would result in additional contaminated sites; Now, therefore,
The General Assembly of North Carolina enacts:
SECTION 1. G.S. 130A-310.62 through G.S. 130A-310.64 are reserved for future codification purposes.
SECTION 2. Article 9 of Chapter 130A of the General Statutes is amended by adding a new Part to read:
"Part 8. Risk-Based Environmental Remediation of Industrial Sites.
"§ 130A-310.65. Definitions.
As used in this Part:
(1) "Background standard" means the naturally occurring concentration of a substance in the absence of the release of a contaminant.
(2) "Commission" means the Environmental Management Commission created pursuant to G.S. 143B-282.
(3) "Contaminant" means any substance regulated under any program listed in G.S. 130A-310.67(a).
(4) "Contaminated industrial site" or "site" means any real property that meets all of the following criteria:
a. The property is contaminated and may be subject to remediation under any of the programs or requirements set out in G.S. 130A-310.67(a).
b. The property is or has been used primarily for manufacturing or other industrial activities for the production of a commercial product. This includes a property used primarily for the generation of electricity.
c. No contaminant associated with activities at the property is located off of the property at the time the remedial action plan is submitted.
d. No contaminant associated with activities at the property will migrate to any adjacent properties above unrestricted use standards for the contaminant.
(5) "Contamination" means a contaminant released into an environmental medium that has resulted in or has the potential to result in an increase in the concentration of the contaminant in the environmental medium in excess of unrestricted use standards.
(6) "Fund" means the Inactive Hazardous Sites Cleanup Fund established pursuant to G.S. 130A-310.11.
(7) "Institutional controls" means nonengineered measures used to prevent unsafe exposure to contamination, such as land-use restrictions.
(8) "Registered environmental consultant" means an environmental consulting or engineering firm approved to implement and oversee voluntary remedial actions pursuant to Part 3 of Article 9 of Chapter 130A of the General Statutes and rules adopted to implement the Part.
(9) "Remedial action plan" means a plan for eliminating or reducing contamination or exposure to contamination.
(10) "Remediation" means all actions that are necessary or appropriate to clean up, mitigate, correct, abate, minimize, eliminate, control, or prevent the spreading, migration, leaking, leaching, volatilization, spilling, transport, or further release of a contaminant into the environment in order to protect public health, safety, or welfare or the environment.
(11) "Systemic toxicant" means any substance that may enter the body and have a harmful effect other than causing cancer.
(12) "Unrestricted use standards" means contaminant concentrations for each environmental medium that are acceptable for all uses; that are protective of public health, safety, and welfare and the environment; and that comply with generally applicable standards, guidance, or methods established by statute or adopted, published, or implemented by the Commission, the Commission for Public Health, or the Department.
"§ 130A-310.66. Purpose.
It is the purpose of this Part to authorize the Department to approve the remediation of contaminated industrial sites based on site-specific remediation standards in circumstances where site-specific remediation standards are adequate to protect public health, safety, and welfare and the environment and are consistent with protection of current and anticipated future use of groundwater and surface water affected or potentially affected by the contamination.
"§ 130A-310.67. Applicability.
(1) The Inactive Hazardous Sites Response Act of 1987 under Part 3 of Article 9 of Chapter 130A of the General Statutes, including voluntary actions under G.S. 130A-310.9 of that act, and rules promulgated pursuant to those statutes.
(2) The hazardous waste management program administered by the State pursuant to the federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976, Public Law 94-580, 90 Stat. 2795, 42 U.S.C. § 6901, et seq., as amended, and Article 9 of Chapter 130A of the General Statutes.
(3) The solid waste management program administered pursuant to Article 9 of Chapter 130A of the General Statutes.
(4) The federal Superfund program administered in part by the State pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, Public Law 96-510, 94 Stat. 2767, 42 U.S.C. § 9601, et seq., as amended, the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, Public Law 99-499, 100 Stat. 1613, as amended, and under Part 4 of Article 9 of Chapter 130A of the General Statutes.
(5) The groundwater protection corrective action requirements adopted by the Commission pursuant to Article 21 of Chapter 143 of the General Statutes.
(6) Oil Pollution and Hazardous Substances Control Act of 1978, Parts 1 and 2 of Article 21A of Chapter 143 of the General Statutes.
(b) This Part shall not apply to contaminated industrial sites subject to remediation pursuant to any of the following programs or requirements:
(1) The Leaking Petroleum Underground Storage Tank Cleanup program under Part 2A of Article 21A of Chapter 143 of the General Statutes and rules promulgated pursuant to that statute.
(2) The Dry-Cleaning Solvent Cleanup program under Part 6 of Article 21A of Chapter 143 of the General Statutes and rules promulgated pursuant to that statute.
(3) The pre-1983 landfill assessment and remediation program established under G.S. 130A-310.6(c) through (g).
(c) This Part shall apply only to sites where a discharge, spill, or release of contamination has been reported to the Department prior to March 1, 2011.
"§ 130A-310.68. Remediation standards.
(a) When conducting remediation activities pursuant to this Part, a person who proposes to or is required to respond to the release of a contaminant at a contaminated industrial site shall comply with one of the following standards:
(1) The unrestricted use standards applicable to each affected medium.
(2) The background standard, if the background standard exceeds the unrestricted use standards.
(3) A site-specific remediation standard developed in accordance with subsection (b) of this section that is approved by the Department.
(4) Any combination of remediation standards described in this subsection that is approved by the Department.
(b) Site-specific remediation standards shall be developed for each medium as provided in this subsection to achieve remediation that eliminates or reduces to protective levels any substantial present or probable future risk to human health, including sensitive subgroups, and the environment based upon the present or currently planned future use of the property comprising the site. Site-specific remediation standards shall be developed in accordance with all of the following:
(1) Remediation methods and technologies that result in emissions of air pollutants shall comply with applicable air quality standards adopted by the Commission.
(2) The site-specific remediation standard for surface waters shall be the water quality standards adopted by the Commission.
(3) The current and probable future use of groundwater shall be identified and protected. Site-specific sources of contaminants and potential receptors shall be identified. Potential receptors must be protected, controlled, or eliminated whether the receptors are located on or off the site where the source of contamination is located. Natural environmental conditions affecting the fate and transport of contaminants, such as natural attenuation, shall be determined by appropriate scientific methods.
(4) Permits for facilities located at sites covered by any of the programs or requirements set out in G.S. 130A-310.67(a) shall contain conditions to avoid exceedances of applicable groundwater standards adopted by the Commission pursuant to Article 21 of Chapter 143 of the General Statutes due to operation of the facility.
(5) Soil shall be remediated to levels that no longer constitute a continuing source of groundwater contamination in excess of the site-specific groundwater remediation standards approved under this Part.
(6) Soil shall be remediated to unrestricted use standards on residential property with the following exceptions:
a. For mixed-use developments where the ground level uses are nonresidential and where all potential exposure to contaminated soil has been eliminated, the Department may allow soil to remain on the site in excess of unrestricted use standards.
b. If soil remediation is impracticable because of the presence of preexisting structures or impracticability of removal, all areas of the real property at which a person may come into contact with soil shall be remediated to unrestricted use standards, and, on all other areas of the real property, engineering and institutional controls that are sufficient to protect public health, safety, and welfare and the environment shall be implemented and maintained.
(7) The potential for human inhalation of contaminants from the outdoor air and other site-specific indoor air exposure pathways shall be considered, if applicable.
(8) The site-specific remediation standard shall protect against human exposure to contamination through the consumption of contaminated fish or wildlife and through the ingestion of contaminants in surface water or groundwater supplies.
(9) For known or suspected carcinogens, site-specific remediation standards shall be established at exposures that represent an excess lifetime cancer risk of one in 1,000,000. The site-specific remediation standard may depart from the one-in-1,000,000 risk level based on the criteria set out in 40 Code of Federal Regulations § 300.430(e)(9) (July 1, 2003 Edition). The cumulative excess lifetime cancer risk to an exposed individual shall not be greater than one in 10,000 based on the sum of carcinogenic risk posed by each contaminant present.
(10) For systemic toxicants, site-specific remediation standards shall represent levels to which the human population, including sensitive subgroups, may be exposed without any adverse health effect during a lifetime or part of a lifetime. Site-specific remediation standards for systemic toxicants shall incorporate an adequate margin of safety and shall take into account cases where two or more systemic toxicants affect the same organ or organ system.
(11) The site-specific remediation standards for each medium shall be adequate to avoid foreseeable adverse effects to other media or the environment that are inconsistent with the risk-based approach under this Part.
"§ 130A-310.69. Remedial investigation report; remedial action plans.
(a) A person who proposes to conduct remediation pursuant to this Part shall submit a remedial investigation report to the Department prior to submitting a remedial action plan. The remedial investigation report shall include, but is not limited to, a legal description of the location of the site; a map showing the location of the site; a description of the contaminants involved and their concentration in the media of the site; a narrative description of the methodology used in the investigation; a description of all on-site releases of contamination; a site map, drawn to scale, showing benchmarks, directional arrow, location of property boundaries, buildings, structures, all perennial and nonperennial surface water features, drainage ditches, dense vegetation, contaminant spill or disposal areas, underground utilities, storage vessels, and existing on-site wells; identification of adjacent property owners and adjacent land uses; description of local geologic and hydrologic conditions; an evaluation of the site and adjacent properties for the existence of environmentally sensitive areas; a description of groundwater monitoring well design and installation procedures; a map, drawn to scale, that shows all groundwater sample locations; a description of field and laboratory quality control and quality assurance procedures followed during the remedial investigation; a description of methods used to manage investigation-derived wastes; tabulation of analytical results for all sampling; copies of all laboratory reports; a description of procedures and the results of any special assessments; and any other information required by the Department or considered relevant by the investigator. The remedial investigation shall assess all contaminated areas of the site, including types and levels of contamination, and the risk that the contamination poses to public health, safety, and welfare and to the environment.
(b) A person who proposes to conduct remediation pursuant to this Part shall develop and submit a proposed remedial action plan to the Department. A remedial action plan shall provide for the protection of public health, safety, and welfare and the environment. A remedial action plan shall do all of the following:
(1) Identify actions required to remove, treat, or otherwise appropriately mitigate or isolate the source of contamination to ensure that the source will not cause unrestricted use standards to be exceeded in any medium.
(2) Address contamination that moves from one medium to another in order to prevent a violation of the remediation standards established under G.S. 130A-310.68. A more stringent remediation standard may be required for a particular medium to control impact on other media.
(3) Identify the current and anticipated future uses of property comprising the contaminated site and address any concerns raised in public comment on the proposed remedial action plan as to the proposed future uses of the property.
(4) Identify the current and anticipated future uses of groundwater in the contaminated site and address any concerns raised in public comment on the proposed remedial action plan as to the future uses of groundwater.
(5) Determine the appropriate method of remediation to achieve the site-specific remediation standards.
(6) Specify any measures that may be necessary to prevent adverse effects to the environment that may occur at levels of contamination that are lower than the standard necessary to protect human health.
(7) Specify any measures that may be necessary to prevent any discharge into surface waters during implementation of the remedial action plan that violates applicable surface water quality standards adopted by the Commission.
(8) Specify any measures that may be necessary to prevent any air emission during implementation of the remedial action plan that violates applicable air quality standards adopted by the Commission.
(9) Provide for attainment and maintenance of the remediation standards established under G.S. 130A-310.68.
(10) Provide for methods and procedures to verify that the quantity, concentration, range, or other measure of each contaminant remaining at the contaminated site at the conclusion of the contaminant-reduction phase of remediation meets the remediation standards established for the site, that an acceptable level of risk has been achieved, and that no further remediation is required.
(11) Provide for the imposition and recordation of land-use restrictions as provided in G.S. 143B-279.9, 143B-279.10, 130A-310.3(f), 130A-310.8, 130A-310.35, 143-215.84(f), and 143-215.85A if the remedial action plan allows contamination in excess of the greater of unrestricted use standards or background standards to remain on any real property or in groundwater that underlies any real property.
(12) Provide for submission of an annual certification to the Department by the property owner that land use at the site is in compliance with land-use restrictions recorded pursuant to this Part and that the land-use restrictions are still properly recorded in the chain of title for the property.
(13) Provide a detailed description of the proposed remedial action to be taken; the results of any treatability studies and additional site characterization needed to support the proposed remedial action; plans for postremedial and confirmatory sampling; a project schedule; a schedule for progress reports to the Department; and any other information required by the Department or considered relevant by the person who submits the proposed remedial action plan.
(14) Provide a description of measures that will be employed to ensure that the safety and health of persons on properties in the vicinity of the site and persons visiting or doing business on the site will not be adversely affected by any remediation activity.
(15) Provide a reasonable estimate of the probable cost of the remedial action sufficient for the Department to determine an acceptable level of financial assurance.
(16) Provide proof of financial assurance as required by G.S. 130A-310.72.
(c) A remedial action plan shall also include an analysis of each of the following factors:
(1) Long-term risks and effectiveness of the proposed remediation, including an evaluation of all of the following:
a. The magnitude of risks remaining after completion of the remediation.
b. The type, degree, frequency, and duration of any postremediation activity that may be required, including, but not limited to, operation and maintenance, monitoring, inspection, reports, and other activities necessary to protect public health, safety, and welfare and the environment.
c. Potential for exposure of human and environmental receptors to contaminants remaining at the site.
d. Long-term reliability of any engineering and voluntary institutional controls, including repair, maintenance, or replacement of components.
e. Time required to achieve remediation standards.
(2) Toxicity, mobility, and volume of contaminants, including the amount of contaminants that will be removed, contained, treated, or destroyed; the degree of expected reduction in toxicity, mobility, and volume; and the type, quantity, toxicity, and mobility of contaminants that will remain after implementation of the remedial action plan.
(3) Short-term risks and effectiveness of the remediation, including the short-term risks that may be posed to the community, workers, or the environment during implementation of the remedial action plan, and the effectiveness and reliability of protective measures to address short-term risks.
(4) The ease or difficulty of implementing the remedial action plan, including commercially available remedial measures; expected operational reliability; available capacity and location of needed treatment, storage, and disposal services for wastes; time to initiate remediation; and approvals necessary to implement the remediation.
(d) The development of a remedial action plan may require supplemental submissions and revisions based on Department review, remedial action pilot studies, and public comment from local government and citizens.
"§ 130A-310.70. Notice of intent to remediate.
In addition to the public participation requirements of the individual programs listed in G.S. 130A-310.67(a), the person who proposes to remediate a site under this Part shall send a notice of intent to remediate to all local governments having taxing or land-use jurisdiction over the site, and to all adjoining landowners. The notice shall include all of the information required in G.S. 130A-310.69(a) and include a statement of intent to clean up the site to site-specific remediation standards. The person shall submit to the Department a copy of the notice of intent provided to local governments and adjoining landowners, a certification that the notice of intent to remediate was so provided to those parties, and all information and comments that the person received in response to the notice. In addition, the person shall, when appropriate, describe how the remedial action plan was modified to address comments received in response to the notice.
"§ 130A-310.71. Review and approval of proposed remedial action plans.
(a) The Department shall review and approve a proposed remedial action plan consistent with the remediation standards set out in G.S. 130A-310.68 and the procedures set out in this section. In its review of a proposed remedial action plan, the Department shall do all of the following:
(1) Determine whether site-specific remediation standards are appropriate for a particular contaminated site. In making this determination, the Department shall consider proximity of the contamination to water supply wells or other receptors; current and probable future reliance on the groundwater as a water supply; current and anticipated future land use; environmental impacts; and the feasibility of remediation to unrestricted use standards.
(2) Determine whether the party conducting the remediation has adequately demonstrated through modeling or other scientific means acceptable to the Department that no contamination will migrate to adjacent property at levels above unrestricted use standards.
(3) Determine whether the proposed remedial action plan meets the requirements of G.S. 130A-310.69.
(4) Determine whether the proposed remedial action plan meets the requirements of any other applicable remediation program except those pertaining to remediation standards.
(5) Establish the acceptable level or range of levels of risk to public health, safety, and welfare and to the environment.
(6) Establish, for each contaminant, the maximum allowable quantity, concentration, range, or other measures of contamination that will remain at the contaminated site at the conclusion of the contaminant-reduction phase of the remediation.
(7) Consider the technical performance, effectiveness, and reliability of the proposed remedial action plan in attaining and maintaining compliance with applicable remediation standards.
(8) Consider the ability of the person who proposes to remediate the site to implement the proposed remedial action plan within a reasonable time and without jeopardizing public health, safety, or welfare or the environment.
(9) Determine whether the proposed remedial action plan adequately provides for the imposition and maintenance of engineering and institutional controls and for sampling, monitoring, and reporting requirements necessary to protect public health, safety, and welfare and the environment.
(10) Approve the circumstances under which no further remediation is required.
(b) The person who proposes a remedial action plan has the burden of demonstrating with reasonable assurance that contamination from the site will not migrate to adjacent property above unrestricted use levels and that the remedial action plan is protective of public health, safety, and welfare and the environment by virtue of its compliance with this Part. The demonstration shall (i) take into account actions proposed in the remedial action plan that will prevent contamination from migrating off the site; and (ii) use scientifically valid site-specific data.
(c) The Department may require a person who proposes a remedial action plan to supply any additional information necessary for the Department to approve or disapprove the plan.
(d) In making a determination on a proposed remedial action plan, the Department shall consider the information provided by the person who proposes the remedial action plan as well as information provided by local governments and adjoining landowners pursuant to G.S. 130A-310.70. The Department shall disapprove a proposed remedial action plan unless the Department finds that the plan is protective of public health, safety, and welfare and the environment and complies with the requirements of this Part. If the Department disapproves a proposed remedial action plan, the person who submitted the plan may seek review as provided in Article 3 of Chapter 150B of the General Statutes. If the Department fails to approve or disapprove a proposed remedial action plan within 120 days after a complete plan has been submitted, the person who submitted the plan may treat the plan as having been disapproved at the end of that time period.
"§ 130A-310.72. Financial assurance requirement.
The person conducting remediation of a contaminated industrial site pursuant to the provisions of this Part shall establish financial assurance that will ensure that sufficient funds are available to implement and maintain the actions or controls specified in the remedial action plan for the site. The person conducting remediation of a site may establish financial assurance through one of the following mechanisms, or any combination of the following mechanisms, in a form specified or approved by the Department: insurance products issued from entities having no corporate or ownership association with the person conducting the remediation; funded trusts; surety bonds; certificates of deposit; letters of credit; corporate financial tests; local government financial tests; corporate guarantees; local government guarantees; capital reserve funds; or any other financial mechanism authorized for the demonstration of financial assurance under (i) 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 264, Subpart H (July 1, 2010 Edition) and (ii) Section .1600 of Subchapter B of Chapter 13 of Title 15A of the North Carolina Administrative Code. Proof of financial assurance shall be provided in the remedial action plan and annually thereafter on the anniversary date of the approval of the plan.
"§ 130A-310.73. Attainment of the remediation standards.
(a) Compliance with the approved remediation standards is attained for a site or portion of a site when a remedial action plan approved by the Department has been implemented and applicable soil, groundwater, surface water, and air emission standards have been attained. The remediation standards may be attained through a combination of remediation activities that can include treatment, removal, engineering, or institutional controls, except that the person conducting the remediation may not demonstrate attainment of an unrestricted use standard or a background standard through the use of institutional controls alone. When the remedial action plan has been fully implemented, the person conducting the remediation shall submit a final report to the Department, with notice to all local governments with taxing and land-use jurisdiction over the site, that demonstrates that the remedial action plan has been fully implemented, that any land-use restrictions have been certified on an annual basis, and that the remediation standards have been attained. The final report shall be accompanied by a request that the Department issue a determination that no further remediation beyond that specified in the approved remedial action plan is required.
(b) The person conducting the remediation has the burden of demonstrating that the remedial action plan has been fully implemented and that the remediation standards have been attained in compliance with the requirements of this Part. The Department may require a person who implements the remedial action plan to supply any additional information necessary for the Department to determine whether the remediation standards have been attained.
(c) The Department shall review the final report, and, upon determining that the person conducting the remediation has completed remediation to the approved remediation standard and met all the requirements of the approved remedial action plan, the Department shall issue a determination that no further remediation beyond that specified in the approved remedial action plan is required at the site. Once the Department has issued a no further action determination, the Department may require additional remedial action by the responsible party only upon finding any of the following:
(1) Monitoring, testing, or analysis of the site subsequent to the issuance of the no further action determination indicates that the remediation standards and objectives were not achieved or are not being maintained.
(2) One or more of the conditions, restrictions, or limitations imposed on the site as part of the remediation have been violated.
(3) Site monitoring or operation and maintenance activities that are required as part of the remedial action plan or no further action determination for the site are not adequately funded or are not adequately implemented.
(4) A contaminant or hazardous substance release is discovered at the site that was not the subject of the remedial investigation report or the remedial action plan.
(5) A material change in the facts known to the Department at the time the written no further action determination was issued, or new facts, cause the Department to find that further assessment or remediation is necessary to prevent a significant risk to human health and safety or to the environment.
(6) The no further action determination was based on fraud, misrepresentation, or intentional nondisclosure of information by the person conducting the remediation.
(7) Installation or use of wells would induce the flow of contaminated groundwater off the site.
(d) The Department shall issue a final decision on a request for a determination that remediation has been completed to approved standards and that no further remediation beyond that specified in the approved remedial action plan is required within 180 days after receipt of a complete final report. Failure of the Department to issue a final decision on a no further remediation determination within 180 days after receipt of a complete final report and request for a determination of no further remediation may be treated as a denial of the request for a no further remediation determination. The responsible person may seek review of a denial of a request for a release from further remediation as provided in Article 3 of Chapter 150B of the General Statutes.
"§ 130A-310.74. Compliance with other laws.
Where a site is covered by an agreement under the Brownfields Property Reuse Act of 1997, as codified as Part 5 of Article 9 of Chapter 130A of the General Statutes, any work performed by the prospective developer pursuant to that agreement is not required to comply with this Part, but any work not covered by such agreement and performed at the site by another person not a party to that agreement may be performed pursuant to this Part.
"§ 130A-310.75. Use of registered environmental consultants.
The Department may approve the use of a registered environmental consultant to provide oversight for the assessment and remediation of a site under this Part. If remediation under this Part is not undertaken voluntarily, the Department may not require the use of a registered environmental consultant to provide oversight for the assessment and remediation of a site under this Part.
"§ 130A-310.76. Fees; permissible uses of fees.
(a) A person who undertakes remediation of environmental contamination under site-specific remediation standards as provided in G.S. 130A-310.68 shall pay a fee to the Fund in an amount equal to four thousand five hundred dollars ($4,500) for each acre or portion of an acre of contamination, including any area that will become contaminated as a result of the release; however, no person shall be required to pay more than one hundred twenty-five thousand dollars ($125,000) to the Fund for any individual site, regardless of its size. This one-time fee shall be payable at the time the person undertaking remediation submits the remedial action plan to the Department.
(b) Funds collected pursuant to subsection (a) of this section may be used only for the following purposes:
(1) To pay for administrative and operating expenses necessary to implement this Part.
(2) To establish, administer, and maintain a system for the tracking of land-use restrictions recorded at sites that are remediated pursuant to this Part.
"§ 130A-310.77. Construction of Part.
This Part shall not be construed or implemented in any of the following ways:
(1) In any manner that would jeopardize federal authorization under any of the federal statutes, programs, or requirements set out in G.S. 130A-310.67(a) or would otherwise conflict with federal authority under those statutes, programs, and requirements. This Part is supplemental to the programs and requirements set out in G.S. 130A-310.67(a) that would otherwise govern the remediation of a contaminated industrial site. Where the definitions, provisions, or requirements of this Part conflict with the definitions, provisions, or requirements of an otherwise applicable remediation program, this Part shall control, unless expressly stated to the contrary.
(2) To limit the authority of the Department to require investigation, initial response, or remediation of environmental contamination under any other provision of State or federal law necessary to address an imminent threat to public health, safety, or welfare or the environment.
(3) To alter the requirements of programs to prevent or mitigate the release or discharge of contaminants to the environment, including permitting requirements that regulate the handling of hazardous substances or wastes.
(4) To supersede or otherwise affect or prevent the enforcement of any land-use or development regulation or ordinance adopted by a municipality pursuant to Article 19 of Chapter 160A of the General Statutes or adopted by a county pursuant to Article 18 of Chapter 153A of the General Statutes. The use of a site and any land-use restrictions imposed as part of a remedial action plan shall comply with land-use and development controls adopted by a municipality pursuant to Article 19 of Chapter 160A of the General Statutes or adopted by a county pursuant to Article 18 of Chapter 153A of the General Statutes."
SECTION 3. G.S. 130A-310.78 through G.S. 130A-310.80 are reserved for future codification purposes.
SECTION 4. G.S. 130A-310.10(a) reads as rewritten:
The Secretary shall report on inactive hazardous sites to the Joint Legislative
Commission on Governmental Operations, the Environmental Review Commission, and
the Fiscal Research Division on or before 1 October of each year. The report
shall include at
least:least the following:
The Inactive Hazardous Waste Sites Priority
A list of remedial action plans requiring State funding through the Inactive
Hazardous Sites Cleanup
A comprehensive budget to implement these remedial action plans and the
adequacy of the Inactive Hazardous Sites Cleanup Fund to fund the cost of said
A prioritized list of sites that are eligible for remedial action under
CERCLA/SARA together with recommended remedial action plans and a comprehensive
budget to implement such plans. The budget for implementing a remedial action
plan under CERCLA/SARA shall include a statement as to any appropriation that
may be necessary to pay the State's share of such
A list of sites and remedial action plans undergoing voluntary cleanup with
A list of sites and remedial action plans that may require State funding, a
comprehensive budget if implementation of these possible remedial action plans
is required, and the adequacy of the Inactive Hazardous Sites Cleanup Fund to
fund the possible costs of said
A list of sites that pose an imminent
A comprehensive budget to develop and implement remedial action plans for sites
that pose imminent hazards and that may require State funding, and the adequacy
of the Inactive Hazardous Sites Cleanup
(8a) The amounts and sources of funds collected by year received under G.S. 130A-310.76, the amounts and sources of those funds paid into the Inactive Hazardous Sites Cleanup Fund established pursuant to G.S. 130A-310.11, the number of acres of contamination for which funds have been received pursuant to G.S. 130A-310.76, and a detailed annual accounting of how the funds collected pursuant to G.S. 130A-310.76 have been utilized by the Department to advance the purposes of Part 8 of Article 9 of Chapter 130A of the General Statutes.
(9) Any other information requested by the General Assembly or the Environmental Review Commission."
SECTION 5. The Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources shall make all reasonable efforts to obtain a written agreement from the United States Environmental Protection Agency that Part 8 of Article 9 of Chapter 130A of the General Statutes, as enacted by Section 2 of this act, is consistent with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, Public Law 96-510, 94 Stat. 2767, 42 U.S.C. § 9601, et seq., as amended, and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, Public Law 99-499, 100 Stat. 1613, as amended.
SECTION 6. G.S. 143-215.104M(f) reads as rewritten:
(f) Enforcement. - Any restriction on the current or future use of property subject to a Notice of Dry-Cleaning Solvent Remediation filed pursuant to this section shall be enforced by any owner of the property or by any other potentially responsible party. Any land-use restriction may also be enforced by the Commission through the remedies provided in this Part or by means of a civil action in the superior court. The Commission may enforce any land-use restriction without first having exhausted any available administrative remedies. Restrictions also may be enforced by any unit of local government having jurisdiction over any part of the property by means of a civil action without the unit of local government having first exhausted any available administrative remedy. A land-use restriction may also be enforced by any person eligible for liability protection under this Part who will lose liability protection if the land-use restriction is violated. A restriction shall not be declared unenforceable due to lack of privity of estate or contract, due to lack of benefit to particular land, or due to lack of privity of any property interest in particular land. Any person who owns or leases a property subject to a land-use restriction under this section shall abide by the land-use restriction. Failure to submit an annual certification that land-use restrictions are properly recorded and followed shall result in a notice from the Commission to the property owner. The notice shall inform the person of the actions that need to be taken in order for the person to come into compliance and specify a date by which the person must comply, which shall not be less than 30 calendar days from the date the notice is mailed. Any person who fails to comply within the time specified shall then be subject to enforcement procedures as provided in this Part."
SECTION 7. The Environmental Review Commission, with the assistance of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, shall study the cost of assessing and remediating inactive hazardous substance or waste disposal sites for which there is no financially viable responsible party. The Commission shall also identify potential sources of funds to address the projected need for assessment and remediation. The Environmental Review Commission shall report its findings and recommendations, including any legislative proposals, to the 2012 General Assembly upon its convening.
SECTION 8. This act is effective when it becomes law.
In the General Assembly read three times and ratified this the 9th day of June, 2011.
s/ Walter H. Dalton
President of the Senate
s/ Thom Tillis
Speaker of the House of Representatives
s/ Beverly E. Perdue
Approved 5:00 p.m. this 20th day of June, 2011